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' 1883 





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November 14, 15 and 16, 1883. 

V Williams & Co., Printers, Booksellers and Stationers, 


North Carolina State LibElir^ 






November 14, 15 and 16, 1883. 



576. C. 



Prof'. H. C. CROSBY Kaleigii, N. C. 


Prof. H. P. CHEATHAM First Cong. District Plymouth, N. C. 

Rev. P. VV. CASSEY Second " New Bern, N. C. 

Prof. E. E. SMITH Third " Fayetteviile, N. C. 

Rev. W. R. HARRIS Fourth " Raleigh, N. C. 

Prof. W. A. SCOTT Fifth 

Prof. N. W. HARLLEE Sixth " Laurinburg, N. C. 

Rev. J. C. PRICE Seventh " Salisbury, N. C. 

Mrs. KITTIE LOVE Eighth " .....Waynesville, N. C- 


S. G. ATKINS Haywood, N. C. 


Miss JANE E. THOMAS Raleigh, N. C. 


B. B. G0INP:S Raleigh, N. C. 


Rev. C. JOHNSON Raleigh, N. C. 

• » * 

• • • • '^ 

• • • • . • 

, • . • • • • 

•••• ••• •• • 


First Day — Mornixg Si:ssroN. , 

Ralekjh, N. C, November 14th, 1888. 

Till' second nnmial meetino' of the North Carolina State 
Teachers' Educational Association, was held in the hall of the 
House of Representatives, November 14th, at 10 o'clock A. 
M. The convention was called to order by the President, 
Professor H. C. Crosby, and was foi-mally opened with prayer 
by the Rev. G. W. Perry. The President then delivered the 
opening address. His remarks were pointed and effective. 
Mr. S. G. Atkins, of Chatham county, ably made the response. 
On motion of Professor W. R. Harris, a committee of five 
was appointed on organization, to report at the evening session. 
The committee consisted of the ibllowing named gentlemen: 
Mr. H. B. Delany, Rev. G. W. Perry, and Messrs. W. E. 
Whitefield, AlkM^Baker and H. C. Harris. 

Upon motion, the Association then adjourtied until 7 o'clock 

P. M. 

Evening SivSsion. 

The Association resumed work according to adjournment, 
at 7 o'clock p. M., wntli Professor Crosby presiding, and prayer 
by Mr. W. H. Peace. Minutes of the previous session 
were read and approved. The President appointed a commit- 
tee on hours of meeting and adjournment, consisting of Pro- 
fessor E. E. vSnu'th, Rev. J. S. Lea and Mr. S. G. Atkins, 
which committee reported immediately, as foUows: "Meet 

at 10:30 a. m., adjourn at 1 o'clock p. M. ; meet again for 
evening session at 7 o'clock p. m., and adjourn at pleasure.." 

On motion a committee of five was appointed on resolu- 
tions, viz.: Miss Jane E. Thomas, Miss Ellen Hannon, Rev. 
P. P. Alston, Mr. D. A. Lane and Professor R. I. Walden. 

The Committee on Organization made their report, which 
was adopted with some modifications. See report. 

The following amendment to the constitution was offered 
by Professor E. H. Lipscombe, and adopted by a two-thirds 
majority. The amendment is, "That none be elligible to hold 
office in this Association unless they are practical teachers or 
connected with the school-work of the State in an official 

After some discussion upon the power of this amendment, 
several names were enrolled as members, upon pay orient of 
the prescribed fee. 

According to programme, Professor J. A. Savage, of Golds- 
boro, was called as instructor in "Object Teaching." He 
being absent, the President solicited expression from any mem- 
ber desiring to speak upon the subject. No one having accepted 
the solicitation, the President took opportunity to make explan- 
atory remarks concerning the abs(,'nce of some of the mem-' 
bers. Some other explanations were made with regard to 
absentees, after which the Association adjourned to meet 
Thursday, at 10:30 A. M. 

Second Day — Morning Session. 

November 15, 1883, 10:30 a. m. 

The Association was called to order by the President, and 
opened with prayer by Rev. C. Johnson. The minutes of the 
previous session were read and approved. The President then 
called Professor H. E. Long to the chair and took position on 

the floor of the house. Professor H. C. Crosby spoke with 
reference to the amendiiient to the constitution, offered bv 
Professor E. H. Lipscombe, the previous day. Professor- 
Crosby thought that, notwithstanding the amendment had been 
received and adopted, it was an unwise step; he therefore 
made a motion that the said amendment be reconsidered and 
consigned to a committee. The motion prevailed. 

Upon motion, a committee on constitution was appointed as 
follows: Professors H. C. Crosby and W. R. Hall, Revs. 
P. P. Alston and C. Johnson, and Miss L. S. Dorr. Upon 
motion of Mr. H. B. Delany, a committee was appointed on 
finance, viz.: Rev. C. Johnson, Messrs. S. G. Atkins and 
H. B. Delany. 

Some remarks were now made concerning those who wonld 
address the Association at certain hours. Upon the sugges- 
tion of Professor H. C. Crosby, Mr. H. B. Delany was ap- 
pointed as a messenger to wait upon the County Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction, and to solicit an address from him 
at an hour convenient to him, the Superintendent. 

A lengthy inquiry was made with regard to the relation of 
County Teachers' Associations to the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion ; also, with regard to the duties and powers of delegates 
sent from these associations. Answer to the inquiry was satis- 
factorily rendered by Professor Crosby. 

The President resumed his chair, and Mr. Delany suggested 
that the committee on constitution make some recommenda- 
tion with regard to the relation that should exist between 
County Associations and the State Association. Rev. C. John- 
son was granted, upon request, leave of absence. 

Taking into consideration the importance of the text-books 
best to be used, upon the suggestion of the President, a 
committee of five on text-books was appointed as follows: 
Revs. W. R. Harris, N. F. Roberts and J. S. Lea, Professor 
E. E. Smith and Miss L. S. Dorr. 

After some remarks upon the power of the committee, the 


President suggested that this committee be the one to wait 
upon the State Board of Education at its next annual meet- 
ing. The Association then adjourned to meet at the ap})ointed 
hour P. M. 


Evening Session. 

The Association was called to order by the President, and 
opened with prayer by Brother E. G. Calhoun. The minutes 
of the previous session were read and approved, wdth tlie in- 
sertion of an excuse from Professor J. S. Lea, for his absence, 
'it the previous session, as follows: That as he was guardian 
for the students of Shaw University visiting the Industrial 
Fair, he could not be present. 

Professor Lea, according to programme, read the following 
essay : 


The exalted distinction with ^vhich the Omniscient Bein 
has endowed man by crowning him with an intellect to form 
ideas, together w^itli the inestimable gift to interchange those 
ideas with his fellow-man, calls forth a feeling of admiration 
and gratitude which, harbored within the soul, remains yet to 
be fully expressed. 

'Tis true that the silvery tints of the beautiful flowers pre- 
sent a varied language; 'tis equally true that "The heavens 
declare the j^lory of God," and that "Day unto day uttereth 
speech," &c.,'but it i§ with that language that is used to com- 
municate ideas and thoughts by means of spoken and written 
words, that ^ve desire for a few moments to deal. It is evi- 
dent from historical information that there has been great 
diversity of opinion as to the origin of language. The view 
that language w^as a human invention, was elaborately dis- 
cussed by Locke, Adam Smith and Dugald Steward ; and jt 
was only after it was found that the rapidly increasing ideas 
of men could no longer be conveyed by features of the body 
and facial ex})ression, that a set of social signs, the meaning 

of which was fixed by mutual agreement, was invented. In 
opposition to this view, some theologians claimed a divine 
origin for language, representing (xod as liaving created the 
names of things, and directly taught them to Adam. When, 
however, it was shown that '' language is a spontaneous pro- 
duct of human nature — a necessary result of man's physical 
and mental constitution (including his social instincts), as 
natural to him as to walk, eat or sleep," the opinions just 
mentioned were vague and unsatisfactory. The Bible teaches 
us that from the time of Adam to the building of the tower 
of Babel, one language was universally spoken. What that 
language was has not been fully determined, though the 
church fathers claimed that it was Hebrew. 

A prodigious amount of learning and labor was wasted dur- 
ing the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in trying to trace 
this imaginary connection. Leibnitz was the first to ignore this 
idea, and to establish the principle that the study of languages 
must be conducted in the same way as that of the exact sci- 
ences, by first collecting as many facts as possible and then 
proceeding by inductive reasoning. After many exhaustive 
discussions upon the subject had been effected, a favorable 
consideration was directed toward the study of Sanscrit, first 
made accessible to European scholars by Sir William Jones, 
Colebrooke and other members of the Asiatic Society, founded 
in Calcutta in 1784. Much surprise arose out of the simi- 
larity of Sanscrit to Greek and Latin, " For," declared Sir 
William Jones, "no scholar could examine the Sanscrit, 
Greek and Latin without believing them to have sprung from 
the same source, which, perhaps, no longer exists. There is 
the same reason, though not so forcible, for supposing that 
both the Gothic and Celtic had the same origin with the San- 
scrit. The old Persian may be added to the same family." 
For some time after the revival of learning the classic authors 
were studied chiefly for their language and style ; and those 
who did not reach the supposed standard of purity were 
inconsiderately despised and neglected. Languages, like liv- 
ing organisms, are in a state of continual change, and an 
essential part of the science consists in investigating the laws 
according to which these changes take place; but let us here 
suddenly drop the curtain which has given us a casual insight 
into our subject in general, and search into a few facts con- 
cerning the language of our country and our fathers. The 
English language, now spoken by nearly eighty millions of 
the earth's inhabitants, has been pronounced to be the most 

lieterogeueous in its vocabulary of aiiy that ever existed, a 
fact, the causes of which are to be traced in the history of 
England. M. Miiller, in his Lecture on the Science of Lan- 
guage, sajs: '' There is, perhaps, no language so full of words, 
evidently derived from the most distant sources, as English. 
Every country of the globe seems to have brought some of its 
verbal manufacture to the intellectual market of England." 
Careful historical research seems to warrant the assertion that 
the grow^th of the English language may be traced mto four 
leading periods. The Anglo-Saxon period (extending from 
440 A. D. to 1066 A. D.); the Semi-Saxon period (from 1066 
to 1250); the Early English period, comprising the two peri- 
ods of old and middle English (from 1250 to 1550 A. D.), 
and the Modern English period, (from 1550 to the present 
time). That is, Britain was first peopled by men of the Celtic 
race. About fifty years before the Christian era the Romans, 
conquering Britain, brought the Latin language, only a few 
traces of which remain except in the names of certain tow^ns 
and cities. Between the years 450 and 550 A. D., Britain 
was invaded and conquered by German tribes, chieflly Angles 
and Saxons. It now became Angleland or England^ and the 
language became what is now known as Anglo-Saxon. 

After the celebrated Norman conquest, when William the 
Conqueror became King of England, French became the lan- 
guage of the court and the nobility. . It was not until about 
A. D. 1550 that the language had become what it now is. 

English has for many centuries been far from being a sim- 
ple language. For, aside from its pronouns, prepositions, 
conjunctions and auxiliary verbs, it is a mixture in which 
Normanized, Gallicized Latin is mingled in large proportion 
M'ith a base of degraded Anglo-Saxon. Richard Grant White, 
one of the best of our modern authorities, says: '^To the 
Latin we owe, as the most cursory student of our language 
must have observed, a great proportion of the vocabulary of 
philosophy, of art, of science and of morals, and by means 
of words derived from the Latin, we express, as it is assumed, 
shades of thoughts and of feeling finer than those of which 
our simple mother tongue is capable. "But," continues that 
eminent philologist, " it may at least be doubted whether we 
do not turn too quickly to the Latin lexicon when we wish a 
name for a new thought or a new thing, and whether, out of 
the simples of our ancient English or Anglo-Saxon, so-called, 
WQ might not have formed a language copious enough for all 
the needs of the highest civilization and subtle enough for all 

tlie requisitions of philosophy." . From the foregoing it can 
be seen the English language has not grown up from a few 
germs by the processes of derivation and com[)osition, but is 
the result of the conflicts and mingling of different languages. 
Notwithstanding the many disparaging remarks that are often 
hurled from inconsiderate lips respecting the English lan- 
guage, it nevertheless is surpassed by no other in its power of 
clear and precise expression. Witli Chaucer, the father of 
its literary diction, Wycliff, the founder of its religious dic- 
tion, and other eminent philologists who, in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries perfected its philosophical dialect, it pre- 
sents a copious vocabulary for all kinds of subjects and com- 

Grimm, speaking of its excellence, says: ^' Nay, the Eng- 
lish lano^ua^e, which has borne, not as it were by mere chance, 
the greatest poet of modern times — great in his very contrast 
with classical [metry — I speak, of course, of Shakespeare, — 
this English language may truly be called a world language, 
* * * and seems destined to rule over all the corners of 
the earth." 

There is in it a mystic charm which, apparently akin to a 
supernatural power, wraps the linguist in wondrous imagina- 
uon, gives vivacity to occurrences of long ago, and makes 
them but as happenings of yesterday, and fills the soul with 
hopeful longing for the ever-receding goal. 

Rev. G. W. Perry was commissioned by the President to 
call Professor E. E. Smith, who was billed to read a paper on 
Geography. As Professor Smith could not be found, the 
President opened the discussion upon the method of teaching 
Grammar. At this juncture. Professor B. Nealy, of the 
Atlanta Female Seminary, Georgia, was invited within the 
rail of the Association. Mr. A. W. Whitefield, of the Fay- 
etteville Graded School, spoke upon the subject of Grammar. 
Professors E. H. Lipscombe and F. H. Wilkins spoke upon 
the importance of teaching Grammar to very young pupils, 
though this have to be done with the absence of a text-book. 

Professor Nealy was requested by the President to make some 
remarks upon the subject of Grammar. He responded ably 
and in a manner significant of experience in this subject. At 


Professor Nealy's coDcIiision he was asked some important 
questions with regard to Grammar, which were instructively 

Professor E. E. Smith having appeared, was called by the 
President to read his paper on Geography. Mr. Smith re- 
sponded with an extemporaneous speech, as he had failed to 
bring his paper with him to the hall. He seemed familiar 
with the subject he had in hand, and was hstened to with atten- 

Mr. A. W. Whitefield made some remarks upon the fore- 
going topic. Hon. J. C. Dancy being present, was requested 
by the President to speak. He responded with much earnest- 
ness, giving encouragement to the organization. 

Mr. C. N. Hunter being requested to speak to the Associa- 
tion, said that he could only speak in the abstract with regard to 
education ; however, his remarks were very appropriate. Mr. 
E. G. Calhoun was called to speak, but declined. Rev. W\ 
A. Patillo being called, spoke to the Association with very 
appropriate remarks. 

Hon. J. S. Leary, of Cumberland county, being present, 
was requested by the President to make some remarks. He 
responded with encouraging words, concisely and pointedly. 

The Association, upon motion, adjourned to meet Friday at 
the appointed hour. 

Friday, 10.30 a, m. — Morning Session. 

The Association was called to order by the President, and 
opened with prayer by Mr. D. H. Calhoun. The minutes 
of the previous session were read and approved. 

Miss L. S. Dorr was called by the President to read a paper 
on " Our Obligations, as Teachei's, to North Carolina.^^ 


Miss Doit came forward and read her paper in an audible 
and impressive tone. No comment upon this paper could more 
than partially indicate the rich sentiments which it contains, 
therefore a copy of the same is given, as follows: 


'' Whatever may be the material resources of any State, its 
true wealth is acknowledged by all to lie in an intelligent, 
Christian i)opulation. For the lack of this, no fertility of 
soil, no forest products, no prodigality of valuable minerals can 
compensate. It is man, moved by mind, who gives availability 
to all Nature's productions. Ignorance among the masses of 
any people, is like a moth in a web of fine woolen, or like a 
hidden stone of dynamite in the midst of costly edifices. It 
is a germ of destruction. It may be slow in its progress or it 
may be swift and sudden in its results, but in either case its 
tendency is to the same end. 

In these reflections, trite as they may be, we find abundant 
suggestions concerning our obligations to the State in which 
we are employed as teachers. We have committed to us the 
training of those who are to form an important factor in the 
future well-being of North Carolina. The ravager. Ignorance, 
whether as moth or explosive agent, is to be pursued and put 
to flight by our faithful efforts. In the pupils committed to 
our charge, there are powers to be developed for the State, for 
humanity, for God. There are inclinations to be repressed, 
capable of bringing loss to the State, disgrace to humanity, 
and to the individual, destruction from the presence of God. 
Have we considered these things and the obligations hence 
devolving upon us in the light of conscience, and of moral 
agents ? 

The rallying cry of England's greatest admiral at Trafalgar 
was, "England expects every man to do his duty." Our 
rallying cry might well be, "North Carolina expects every 
teacher to be a Nelson and every school-room a Trafalgar." 
We have clearly set before us here both what we are to be 
and what we are to do. In order to do good we must first be 
good. Physically, intellectually and morally, we must be 
equal to the demands made upon us. We must be vigilant, 
untiring, persistent and zealous. Our victories are to be both 
of development and restraint, and will demand the judicious 


use oT our highest and best powers. First, we are to train or 
to lead out the mental powers of our pupils. These minds 
are given to us in the crude state. We are to fashion them 
for use. They are a })art of the future citizens of our State. 
They will either have a part in public affairs or will be con- 
cerned in the rearing and training of those having such a part. 
In either sphere they must be fitted to act intelligently and in 
the fear of God. They must be trained to think, to reason, 
to know\ What a field for earnest effort have we iiere ! A 
careless teacher will save himself trouble by doing the think- 
ing for his pupils. Like Newton^s dog, Diamond, when he 
had destroyed papers costing years of patient research, this 
teacher may now know the mischief he has done. Neverthe- 
less, it is a mischief, and it is irreparable. The thinking powers 
with which his scholars are endowed were given them for use. 
Instead of leading out these powers, this teacher has locked 
them in and left them to remain undeveloped. Instead of 
giving to the State a man as the product of his teaching, he 
has given to it a machine, to be worked for good or evil, — 
probably for evil — by any one choosing to assume control of 
it. An artisan who spoils valuable material furnished him for 
his work, must make the loss good ; but how shall this loss be 
rectified ? 

Our pupil is also to be trained for self-reliance. One man 
in a State who believes that, by the help of God, he can do 
w^hat any other man could do if the same demand were laid 
upon him, is worth a hundred Micawbers, helplessly waiting 
for something to turn up. 

It is the arm, strong to do and dare for the cause requiring 
aid that gives to a country the stuff heroes are made of. 
Teach your scholar to rely upon himself. Don't let him slyly 
steal his examples from his neighbor's slate. Be tm your 
guard against his ingenious devices for obtaining outside 
prompting in his recitations. If the same amount of inge- 
nuity were spent in devising methods for learning his lesson, 
there would be some hope of him. Don't let him waste him- 
self upon worthless expedients. 

The value of thoroughness has been so often and so vari- 
ously presented, that it would seem as if there is nothing left 
to be said npcm it. We believe, however, that there is yet 
great room for improved action in this particular. A thing 
half known to-day, will not be known at all to-morrow. Ac- 
custom your pupils to do their own reciting. Don't throw in 


so many leaders that, to all intents and purposes, the recita- 
tion is your own. For example: — The class in geography 
has been called. The subject is Turkey, and John has been 
asked to give the capital of the country. John stands speech- 
less with a perfectly blank face. 

'^Con/^ suggests the anxious teacher, after a moment's 

"Con," repeats John, and again falls into sik;nce. 

''Con-stan," pursues the teaciier, showing still greater anxiety. 

A light breaks over the dead blank of John's face. ''Con- 
stantinople," he cries, and esca|)es having a failure marked 
against him for not knowing his lesson. But what has he 
learned ? He has learned that his own lack of effort will be 
made uj) for him by his instructor, and to-morrow he will be 
less concerned to exert himself than he was to-day. No con- 
scientious teacher will do for a pupil that wdiich he is bound 
in all faithfulness to see that the pupil does for himself. Let 
your classes know that they, and not you, will be held respon- 
sible for their recitations. 

We are also under obligations to teach our scholars self- 
respect. This is a natural outgrowth from education, and 
the fuller the intelligence the stronger the growth of this 
vivifying principle. I am not speaking, let it be understood, 
of that upstart, Self-conceit, which leads some inflated persons 
to make dress-parade the chief object of their lives; embold- 
ens them to settle oracularly, upon their own individual 
authority, all questions of law or state, science or religion, 
and from first to last uublushingly to demand from every in- 
stitution in the nation a prop for their support ; but of that 
recognition of the true manliness within one's self which 
comes through opening the brain by the key of knowledge. 
He who has been thus enlightened sees that others accumu- 
late property. Why not he? He sees others enjoying neat 
and well arranged homes. Why not he? He observes that 
others use a proper discrimination in the choice of associates. 
Why not he ? So of his weekly earnings some part begins 
to be laid aside. The cabin becomes a cottage, and, through 
the potent might of self-respect, he who has found the" man 
within himself shuns the rabble that haunt grog-shops and 
other low places of resort, and takes his place as a man among 

From the school-room also our pupil may get his first ideas 
of system in the conduct of affairs. He is perhaps used to 


the loose, shiftless ways that prevail in so many homes. 
Meals at any time and any how. Everything at hap-hazzard. 
Plenty to-day, famine to-morrow. He finds at the school 
that punctuality and system prevail. Tiie school bell taps 
ibr the opening exercises exactly at 9 o'clock, with every 
scholar at his desk. He is assigned, if it be graded school, 
to the room belonging to his grade, the classes are called 
accordiug to a systematic division of time, and each pupil 
knows that, in the regular order of things, certain classes will 
occupy certain intervals of the school-day. So he naturally 
adapts his study to this arrangement, and learns at least the 
first steps in a systematic use of time, which may afterwards 
be of incalculable value to him, both as a man and as a citi- 
zen. These are some of the respects in which our conflict is 
to be for bringing out that that is in the material placed in 
our hands. The kernal of the acorn holds within its compact 
folds the stalwart oak, powerful to abide the storn)S of cen- 
turies. But if the quickening influences of soil and sun and 
moisture be withheld, the acorn will remain an acorn until it 
has become rubbish, through decay. So of the minds we are 
to train. They will either expand to some useful {)nrpose or 
remain dwarfed and worthless until overcome by mental dry- 
rot. Their expansion or their dwarfing lies very much with 
us. Let us be faithful to our high calling. 

I said in starting, that our victories are to be of develop- 
ment and of restraint. I have left myself little space, how- 
ever, to S[)eak of the importance of a firm and judicious dis- 
cipline in our schools. If the State is to be peopled with 
law-abiding citizens, it is from us, as disciplinarians, to a great 
extent, that the habit and principle of obedience are to be im- 
bibed. A scholar who cannot stand the discipline of a well 
ordered school-room will hardly stand the discipline of life 
with credit to himself or to his family; nor with profit to the 
community of which he may form a part. The child who 
absents himself from school because he is there restrained 
from doing what he chooses to do, is a hater of law in his 
heart, and if he grows to manhood with the same principle 
dominant, will be a dangerous member of society. We owe 
it to the State in which we teach to use wholesome restraint 
in the management of our pupils, wliile inculcating in all 
possible ways that best of all control, self-government. To 
those who have been so trained, obedience will be easy, and 
lawlessness a thing not likely to enter into their thoughts. 


That in the work given to our hands we perform well our 
part, the State has a right not only to expect, but to demand, 
and we should be recreant to every principle of right if we 
were remiss in the performance of our duty. No one deserves 
the privileges of a citizen who has no h)ve for his State; who 
is not jealous of its honor; who will not in his pride of citi- 
zenship use his best endeavors for making it pre-eminent 
among States. 

To this end let us spare no pains to prepare ourselves for 
the work belonging to us. Let us, so far as our means will 
allow, keep abreast with the current of popular sentiment con- 
cerning means and methods of fitly performing our work. 
Let us read books and educational journals, and use as much 
of their wisdom as will assort with our own peculiar gift for 
teaching. Let us not grudge our time nor effort, but freely 
use both as may be needed. 

Above all, let us not fail to seek wisdom from God who 
giveth to all liberally and upbraideth not. No one more 
than a teacher has need of Divine help and guidance. Our 
responsibilities to the State end not with this, but extend on 
to far distant generations. Our responsibilities to God cease 
not with time, but stretch away into the far reaches of eter- 
nity. Unaided, the best of us is utterly insufficient for these 
things. Our pupils must receive from us soul culture as well 
as mind culture, or failure will be inscribed on the final record 
of our work. It is an axiom of mathematics that the whole 
is equal to the sum of all of its parts. So in our duty to 
God is included every moral, civil and social obligation. 
That the future North Carolina, so far as depends upon us, 
may not be wanting in God-fearing as well as intelligent citi- 
zens, let us continually implore Divine help in our work, 
while faithfully using the strength, talent, opportunities given 
us; and in so doing we may confidently hope to do our part 
toward making North Carolina, because the best endowed 
with intelligence and uprightness among the masses of her 
people, the grandest of all the States of our republic. 

Mr. S. G. Atkins made some remarks upon the foregoing 
subject. The President spoke upon the importance of teach- 
ing the geography of our State. Mr. H. E. Long made some 
remarks: at his conclusion, Professor J. S. Lea spoke with 
regard to the importance of giving pupils general informa- 


tioD. Professor E. H. Lipscombe was called, but declined to 
speak. The President then gave the Association excuses for 
absence of Professor Hopkins_, of the Frank linton Normal 
School, and Mrs. J. T. Reynolds. 

Miss L. T. Jackson, being called by the President, came 
forward and read an esssy on '^ Primary Teaching." 

Her essay was rich in literary gems and interspersed with 
instruction almost indispensable to teaching primary classes. 

The President called for open discussion upon the foregoing 

Rev. P. P. Alston spoke upon primary teaching with his 
usual readiness and zeal. 

Professor E. H. Lipscombe and Mr. S. G. Atkins, also 
spoke upon the same topic. 

Messrs. H. E. Long and D. H. Calhoun spoke upon pri- 
mary teaching. 

The President then urged the importance of every teacher 
procuring a teacher^s library. The President requested Miss 
L. S. Dorr to give her views on the importance of teachers 
procuring a '^ Teacher's Library.'' 

Miss Mary E. Hayes, of the Charlotte Graded School, then 
made some very admirable remarks upon the subject of primary 
teaching. The President made some remarks with regard to 
the exercises of the evenino; session. 

The Association adjourned to meet at 6 o'clock p. M. 

Evening Session. 

November 16, 1883. 

The Association was called to order by the President, and 
opened with prayer by Mr. S. G. Atkins. The minutes of 
the previous session were read and adopted. The committee 
on resolutions was called to make its report. The committee 


responded and the report was adopted. (See report). Mr. S. 
G. Atkins read a resolution of thanks to His Excellency, the 
Governor, for the use of the hall. The resolution was re- 
ceived and adopted. It reads as follows: 

Whereas, through the generosity and kindness of His Ex- 
cellency, the Governor, we, the North Carolina State Teachers' 
Educational Association, have had the use of the ^' Commons 
HalV in which we have deliberated for the mutual welfare 
of the teachers of North Carolina; thei-efore, 

jBe it resolved, That we tender His Excellency a vote of 
thanks for this interest which he ever seems ready to evince 
in our general welfare, both educationally and materially. 
Respectfully submitted, 



The Committee on Constitution made its report, which was 
received and adopted. (See report). 

The chairman of the Committtee on Finance made some 
remarks with regard to the pecuniary circumstances of the 

Upon motion of Mr. Delany, the Recording Secretary of 
the Association w^as empowered to co-operate with the Presi- 
dent in collecting an assessment fee of twenty-five cents from 
each member of the Association, who had joined previous to 
this meeting of the Association, as a fund for printing min- 

Mr. Delany also referred to the necessity of having an Exe- 
cutive Committee, which was found to be already existing. 

Upon motion, the Recording Secretary was empowered to 
communicate with publishing houses and other firms, to solicit 
advertisements from them, and to publish five hundred copies 
of the minutes of this Association. 

A vote of thanks was tendered the officers for their services, 
and after some miscellaneous remarks, the Association ad- 


joiirued to meet again in Raleigh, November 12th, 13th and 

14th, 1884. 

H. C. CROSBY, President 
S. G. Atkins, Secretary. 



We, tlie Committee on Organization, having carefully con- 
sidered the future interests of the organization at its present 
age, believe that frequent official changes would prove detri- 
mental to its success. We, therefore, recommend the officers 
for the ensuing year to be as follows: 
President— Prof. H. C. Crosby. 
Recording Secretary — S. G. Atkins. 
Assistant Recording Secretary — Miss J. E. Thomas. 
Corresponding Secretary — B. B. Goines. 
Treasurer — Rev. C Johnson. 

Vice-President — 1st Cong. District, Prof. H. P. Cheatham. 
2d " Rev. P. W. Cassey. 

3d " Prof. E. E. Smith. 

" 4th " Rev. W. R. Harris. 

5th " Prof. W. A. Scott. 

" 6th • " Prof. N. W. Harllee. 

" 7th " Rev. J. C. Price. 

" 8th " Mrs. Kittle Love. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Geo. Perry, 

Allen Baker, 

H. C. Harris, 

W. E. Whitefield, 

H. B. Delany, Chm'n. 



Whereas, the education of tlie masses is the cheapest 
defense of a nation, and is, therefore, of first importance; and 
whereas, greater educational facilities are absolutely necessary 
in North Carolina and other Southern States to make their 
"common schools^' efficient and good; therefore, 

Be it resolved, That the colored teachers of North Carolina, 
in convention assembled, do hereby instruct and request our 
representatives in the Congress of the United States to urge 
the passage of a bill appropriating all surplus funds now in 
the National Treasmy to the use of the diiferent States for 
educational purposes in proportion to the illiteracy of each 
State, based upon the statistics of the last census. 

Be it further resolved. That our Representatives see that the 
bill, if passed, shall provide that said appropriation shall be 
applied only to primary schools. 

This 1 6th day of November, 1883. 


We, your Committee on Constitution, have carefully con- 
sidered the amendment referred to us, and think it would 
prove detrimental to the Association. We, therefore, recom- 
mend that it be repealed. We also recommend the following 
addition to article VI of the Constitution, viz.: "County 
Teachers' Associations naay unite with this Association with 
the payment of three dollars, and be entitled to one delegate, 
and for every additional delegate fifty cents. 
Respectfully submitted, 

W. R. Hael, Chm'7i, 
H. C. Crosby, 
Miss L. S. Dorr, 
C. Johnson. 


FroQi November 23d, 1882, to November 14th, 1883: 


For initiation fees, received, . _ _ _ |14 82 


To Mr. Straughn, janitor of the hall, - - - 
To account book for Treasurer, » _ _ 
To Prof. H. C. Crosby, for printing minutes. 
To Prof. H. C. Crosby, _ . - . 

$14 82 

C. JOHNSON, 'Treasurer. 








Jane E. Thomas Raleigh N. C 

W. A. Pattillo Oxford, Granville county 

T. A. Fortson Bennett Seminary, Greensboro, 

N. W. Harllee .Laurinbiirg Acad'y, Lanrinb'g, 

J. A. Fuller Franklinton 

Leonora T. Jackson Halifax 

H. E. Long Franklinton 

N. F. Roberts Raleigh 

R. H. Harris Ore Hill 

L. P. Reynolds Enfield 

John W. Grissom Henderson, Vance county 

S. P. Kearney Henderson 

P. P. Alston Raleigh 

M. A. Hopkins Franklinton ,.. 

J. F. Holland Varina 

A. A. Bright Keyser, Moore county 

Silas Thompson Raleigh 

Jerry S, Lea Raleigh 

Diana A.Hall Raleigh 

J. C. White Durham, Durham county 

J. L. Long.. Franklinton 

S. G. Watkins .....Haywood, Chatham county 

H. S. McDuffey Raleigh 

C. W. Chesnutt Fayetteville, Cumberland Co.,.. 

D. P. Allen Lu mberton 

Laura A. Curtis Raleigh 

W. H. Peace, Jr Raleigh 

Joshua Perry , Louisburg 

Csesar Johnson Raleigh 

M. C. Ransom Franklinton 

E. H. Lipscombe Raleigh 

W. T. Outlaw Franklinton 

E. L. Jeffreys Hutchinson 

Mary L. Peace Raleigh 

L. R. Ferebee Raleigh 

F. H. Wilkins Raleigh 

J. R. Davis Raleigh 

H. B. Delanv Fernandina Flori 


H. M. Joseph Antign West Indies. 

M. Strickland Raleigh N. C. 

H. C. Crosby Raleigh " 

A. B. Vincent Goldsboro, Wayne county " 

D. A. Lane Raleigh " 

Milton G. Pittnaan Tarboro, Edgecombe county " 

Miss Libia A. Leary, Fayetteville,.. N, C. 

Miss Mary E. Pierce, Fayetteville, " 

L. F. Mial, Clayton, " 

W. H. Peace, Raleigh, " 

E. G. Calhoun,..., Saratoga, " 

Miss Kittie Ligon, Raleigh, " 

R. I. Walden, Garysburg, " 

A. W. Whitefield, ....Fayetteville, " 

Allen B. Baker, Raleigh, " 

George W. Perry, Raleigh, " 

Miss L. S. Dorr, , Raleigh, " 

" Ellen Hannon,..., Raleigh, *' 

" Nannie J. Logan, Danville, Virginia, 

" Olivia A. Epps, Halifax, N. C. 

" Jennie M. Young, Henderson, " 

" Mary E. Hayes, Charlotte, , " 

D. H. Calhoun, Saratoga, " 

G. H. Hackney, New Hill, " 

W. R. Hall, Raleigh, " 

F. W. Dunn, Raleigh, " 



Tills body shall be known as the "North Carolina State Teachers' 
Educational Association." 



Sec. 1, The object of this Association shall be to promote the general 
educational welfare of the colored people of North Carolina by encouraging: 
firstly, the formation of County Teachers' Institutes throughout every 
county in the State ; secondly, the uniformity of tex-books in the public 
schools of the State ; thirdly, the adoption, by our teachers, of the best 
modern methods of teaching common schools, &c. 


Sec. 1. The officers of this Association shall be a President, Vice-Presi- 
dents (one from each Congressional District), a Corresponding Secretary, 
a Recording Secretary, an Assistant Recording Secretary, and a Treasurer, 
all of whom shall be elected annually by ballot, unless otherwise directed. 


Sec. 1. The President shall perform such duties as are usually incum- 
bent upon such an officer. 

Sec. 2. In the absence of the President, the Association shall elect one 
of the Vice-Presidents to preside. 

Sec. 3. The Corresponding Secretary shall communicate with the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Board of Education of this 
State, and of other States, if necessary, to secure such information as may 
be beneficial to the Association ; and perform such other duties as usually 
devolve upon Corresponding Secretaries. 

Sec. 4. The Recording Secretary shall record and keep a correct record 
of the proceedings of each meeting. 

Sec. 5. In the absence of the Recording Secretary, the Assistant Record- 
ing Secretary shall perform the duties of that oflSce. 

Sec. 6. The Treasurer shall receive and hold all funds of the Associa- 
tion, subject to the order of the President, countersigned by the Recording 
Secretary, and report the condition of the treasury at each annual meeting 
of the Association. 


Sec. I. In addition to the above mentioned officers, there shall be an 
Executive Board, consisting of the President, Vice-Presidents, the Corre- 


spending Secretary and Treasurer of the Association, whose duty shall be 
to fill all vacancies caused by death or resignation, and prepare a pro- 
gramme for each annual meeting of the Association at least two months 
prior thereto. 


Sec. 1. School teachers and school officers generally, of the State, may 
become members of this Association by the payment of, males $1, females 
50 cents. County Teachers' Associations may unite with this Association 
by the payment of $3.00, and be entitled to one delegate, and for every 
additional delegate 50 cents. 


Sec. The members of the State Board of Education shall be entitled to 
seats as honorary members, and may participate in the debates of the Asso- 
ciation, but will not be allowed to vote. 


Sec. 1. Nine members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business at any regular meeting of the Association. 


Sec. 1. This Constitution may be amended by a vote of two-thirds of the 
members present at any annual meeting. 



Sec. 1. The meetings of this Association shall be held in the city of 
Raleigh, beginning on the second Wednesday in November of each year, 
and continue in session at least two days. 


Sec. L This Association shall be governed by Parliamentary rules of 
order as set forth in Roberts' Manual. 


Maury's Geographies, 
Holmes' Readers, 

Holmes' U. S. History, 



Parents, Teachers, and all persons concerned in the use'of 
Text-books, will consult their interest and promote the suc- 
cess of schools by seeing that these books are in the hands of 
scholars. They may generally be had of booksellers, but 
when they cannot, the publishers will forward them to any 
address on receipt of price. 

Elementary Geography, - - - - f 60 

Revised Manual (with large Map of the State), 1 25 

First Reader, - - - - - 14 

Second Reader, - - - - ,24 

Third Reader, - - - - - 36 

Fourth Reader, - - - - 48 

Holmes' New History, - - - - 1 00 


19 Murray Street^ New York, 



The Cheapest and Best School Books 

Within the past few years the demand has been made that Text-books lor 
use of Common Schools should be furnished at the Lowest Rates at which they 
can be afforded. 

With the advantages gained by fifty years experience as Publishers and 
Manufacturers of School Text-books, we are able to furnish our publications 
at lower prices than any other similar publications are furnished. 


will be found, upon examination, to contain a greater amount of choice and 
useful matter, with the very best material, binding and workmanship, in pro- 
portion to the prices, than any other school books, or any other class of books 
published in this country. 


A complete Course of Study for schools in the "common branches" may be 
arranged with the following essential books in each branch : 
SPELLING— McGufFey's Kevised Eclectic Speller, one book. 
BEADING— McGuffey's Revised Eclectic Readers, //Ve 600^-5. 
ARITHMETIC— Ray's New Series of Arithmetics, three books. 
GEOGRAPHY — New Eclectic Geographies, two books. 
GRAMMAR — Harvey's Revised Grammars, tivo books. 
HISTORY— Eclectic U. S. History, one book. 
PENMANSHIP— New Eclectic Copy Books, Series. 
Price-list and Descriptive Circulars on application. 

VAN ANTWERP, BRAGG & CO., Publishers, 


|;^Sllli g^rolina Staret Library 



In Sheep, Russia and 'i urkey Bindings. 


fi X*^!^ Webster —it lias 118,000 Words, 
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Pres. J. H. Carlisle, Wofford College. 
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Prof. E. S. Joynes, S. C. College. 
Gen. E. M. Law, King's Mt. Military Schoo_ 
Col. A. Coward, State Sup't Education, S. C. 
Pres. Kemp P. Battle, University of N. C. 
Pres. R. L.. Abernethy, Rutherford College. 
Prof. John Manning, University of N. C. 
Pres. T. H. Pritchard, Wake Forest College. 
Col. Geo. W. Rains, University of Georgia. 
Chancellor P. H. Mell, " 
Pres. A. G. Haygood, Emory College, Ga. 
V. Pres. A. J. Semmes, Pio Nono College, Ga. 
Gov. H. S. Thompson, of South Carolina. 
Gov. T. J. Jarvis, of North Carolina. 
Gov. A. H. Colquitt, of Georgia. 
Senators Hill and Brown, of Georgia. 
Senator John T. Morgan, of Alabama. 
Pres. Julius D. Dreher, Roanoke College, Va. 
Prof. F. Louis Soldan, Prin. St. Louis Normal- 
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Address of President Grant ^ 

'An ignorant 
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1— 1 




















k.S <Lid 





List of JBoohs Meconimended by the State Board of 
Edtication for ttse in the PuMie Schools, 


Wel)ster's Elementavy Spelling Book $ .12 


Worcester's Primary Dictionary .50 

Worcester's School ])ictionary SO 

Worcester's Comprehensive bictionary T.'m 

Worcestei'^s Acadomic Dictionary .' ■ Dau 

Worcester's Octavo Dictionary,..'. :5.40 


Holmes' First Renaer ., 15 

Holmes' Second He:u1er '. : 25 

H.ihnes' Thii-.l U.ader 35 

]!-U,,--" iMiurtli Header 50 

iloluies' Filth llradi'V fO 

-lames' Sonthern Seh.-ctions, as Speaker and Suppk^mental Reader (wlien needed).... 1.25 


San ford's Primai'y .\n:dytical Arirhmetic .20 

Sanibrd's Intermedintc Anahtical Arithmetic :-S5 

Sanford's Comnion School Analytical Arithmetic Co 

SanlVird's Higher Analytical Arithmetic 1.00 


llai've\-'s Revised i^lcuiciitarv (ivanimai- ;t.nd ('om])iisitinn, for Primacv Classes .50 

IJccd ^- Kellogg's Cradi'd Lessons in I'higlish, for Intt^i mediate Classes 45 

lieed ct Keilo^-g's Higher Lessons in English, for higher classes 75 


Manry's Elementary Geography (10 

]\Janry's IManual of ileogi'aphj'. ".,.....:. l.:)0 


Goodrich's American Child's Pictorial History of the United States (primary classes), .no 

MooRE'S School History of North Carolina (hy act of Legislature) 85 

Holmes' Historv of tlie United States, for Intermediate Glasses l.oo 

Stei)hen's Histm-y of the United States, for Higher Classes 1.50 


j Payson, Dunton & Scrilmer's Primary Series, per dozen 85 

I'ayson, Danton & Scii))ner's National Series, per (k)zen 1.20 


Reynold's Coi)y Books, pei' dozen 1.20 

Ap)_)leton's (\)])y ISook's, Primary Series, per dozen .W 

Appleten's ?tlo<lel (•.)i)y Books, per dozen .' 1.2o 

L^clectic ropy liodks, i)er dozen 1.20 

j Spcncerian System of Penmanship, each 12 

! ]5eer's Systcnn of P)-ogressi\-e Peninanshii), each ; 12 


i /(®"Tn addition to onr I'c^-nlai- stoidv (d" School Books, &c., we cai-rv at all times a very 
large sni)ply of all the lio<.i;s r(M'onun(Mid(>d hy the State ISoard of Edncaiion, an.l otter 

I nnusnal facilities to ever\' scIkk.I in flie S(;ite, pri^nte :is well ms ludilic. ( Mu' <M)ni])lete 
(Catalogue of School Books will he Imnishe.l free on application. Address, 


j • 11!) Fayettevill(> Street, l!al<-igh, N. C. 

j /Jt»"Ri:iai,Ai; I'viaasii ia;s' Ackntsvui; a la, tii i; Statk UneKS. Y-ll 

GC 370.6 N8733J 


North Carolina Negro Teachers Associatio 
Journal of the North Carolina State Teac 

3 3091 00106 3635 





I^in Syracuse, N. Y. 
^^^ Stockfon, Calif. 





North Carolina Negro Teachers Association 



"%^ ■